变焦

在本节中,我们将讨论放大和缩小。 虽然变焦从技术上来说不是 相机移动的摄像机本身不 移动,通过调节镜头的焦距 ,我们可以使物体出现接近或更远。 随着变焦的镜头,这是一个很方便 ,没有任何集成摄像头的运动方式建立起来。放大,也可以有效地用于模仿的角度 来看拍有人用相机或望远镜的, 因为人眼无法执行的,观众变焦 会它经常与人观看现场远道而来的关联。

当我们在缩小,我们可以从观众隐瞒细节,直到我们准备 透露他们或弱化主体和把它变成自己周围的环境。 从也许在目前主流的电影,除了 塔伦蒂诺,我们不会发现使用变焦频繁, 除非使用一种程式化的方式,它通常被作为过时,重 引导观众的注意力,递给方式 的帧的特定方面。 我们更容易找到这种技术,在使用跑和走的纪录片 作品,其中DP没有上演他们的镜头的奢侈品。

他们只是试图捕捉最重要的动作 场面,因为它发生在实时 或重新制定一个场景使用不同焦距的 订单后,以选择最佳的拍摄后, 另一个地方去寻找变焦的信息纪录片,或发现镜头 的电影和电视节目特意提醒大家注意的业余摄像头的工作。一个镜头可以带来技术上的挑战以及由于在变焦 光线通过镜头可能与焦距改变传输量。

这取决于我们的镜头使用,这 对曝光效果可以大大改变我们的镜头。 请注意图像整体变亮时, 相机的缩小和放大时会变暗。 有趣的是,这些图片均拍摄于相同的ISO和光圈。 另一个技术考虑的是,某些元素可能 在形状上移,如果使用的是广角镜头, 虽然这是普遍接受的纪录片风格的电影, 也可以是不愉快的,并分散在叙事电影。

让我们来看看这个例子。 这里是基本的静态拍摄的女孩在外面等候。 但是,如果我们放大,我们为大家带来的观众就在行动的前面。 事实上,我们看到发生了什么事情,而实际上,她的身后 ,我们看看会发生什么在餐厅以及内部。 如果我们缩小,我们实际上可以建立隔离感。 她看起来更小。 下雨了, 这是湿的。这是感冒。 让我们来看看他们都相映成趣。 如果我们有一点点摇一下,我们可以模仿就像有人 从远看着眼前的一幕还是有人站在那里看着她。

放大或缩小非常迅速提供紧急和危险的感觉。 最后一枪可能无法完全框,可在其中加了一层真实感。 如果不使用变焦来强调或弱化的对象中, 大多数董事的今天,将通常选择使用小车来代替。 这涉及到比较详细的设置,我们稍后会在这个过程中涉及。

Zooms

In this section we will be discussing zooming in and out. Although a zoom is not technically a camera movement as the camera itself does not move, by adjusting the lens focal length we can make objects appear near or farther.With zoom lenses this is a very convenient method of integrating camera movement without any set up. Zooming in can also be used effectively to imitate a point of view shot of someone using a camera or a pair of binoculars.Because the human eye cannot perform a zoom in, a viewer will often associate it with someone watching a scene from afar.

When we are zooming out, we can conceal details from the viewer until we are ready to reveal them or de-emphasize the subject and put it into the context of his surroundings. In current mainstream cinema, aside from perhaps Tarantino, we won’t find zooms used that frequently. Unless used in a stylized fashion, it is often viewed, as an outdated, heavy handed way of directing the viewer’s attention, to a particular aspect of the frame. We are more likely to find this technique, used in run-and-go documentary work, in which the DP doesn’t have the luxury of staging their shots.

They’re simply trying to capture the most important action of the scene as it happens in real time, or re-framing a scene using different focal lengths inorder to pick the best shot later in post. Another place to look for zooms is info documentary, or found footage films and TV shows that intentionally draw attention to the amateurish camera work. Zooming during a shot can pose technical challenges as well since the amount of light transmitted by the lens might change with the focal length.

Depending on what lens we are using, this effect on exposure can drastically change our shot. Notice how the image brightens overall when the camera zooms out and darkens when zooming in. Interestingly, both of these images were shot at the same ISO and aperture. Another technical consideration is that certain elements may shift in shape if working with a wide-angle lens.While this is generally acceptable in documentary style film, it can be unpleasant and distracting in a narrative film.

Let’s look at this example. Here’s the basic static shot of the girl waiting outside. But if we zoom in, we bring the viewer right in front of the action. We actually see what’s going on, and actually, behind her we see what’s going on inside the restaurant as well. If we zoom out, we can actually establish a sense of isolation. She looks smaller. It’s raining. It’s wet. It’s cold. Let’s take a look at them all side by side. If we have a little bit of shake, we can imitate like someone is watching the scene from far or someone is standing there watching her.

Zooming in or out very quickly provides a sense of urgency and danger. The final shot might not be perfectly framed, which can add a layer of realism.Instead of using a zoom to emphasize or de-emphasize a subject, most directors today, will often opt to use a dolly instead. This involves a more elaborated set up, that we will cover later on this course.